On December 12, 2019, the Mexican Senate adopted the revised treaty by 107 votes to 1.  On April 3, 2020, Mexico announced its readiness to implement the agreement and joined Canada, although it requested that its auto industry have additional time to comply with the agreement.  NAFTA has three primary dispute resolution mechanisms. Chapter 20 is the settlement mechanism for countries. It is often considered the least controversial of the three mechanisms, and has been maintained in its original form from NAFTA to the USMCA. In such cases, complaints filed by USMCA Member States against the duration of the contract would be violated.  In Chapter 19, the justifications for anti-dumping or countervailing duties are managed. Without Chapter 19, the avenue of recourse for the management of these policies would be through the national legal system. Chapter 19 provides that an USMCA body hears the case and acts as an international commercial tribunal to arbitrate the dispute.  The Trump administration has attempted to remove Chapter 19 of the new USMCA text, which until now existed in the agreement. On March 13, 2020, the House of Commons passed The USMCA Implementation Act C-4 before being exposed for 6 weeks due to the COVID 19 pandemic.
Due to “exceptional circumstances,” the third and final reading of the act was passed in the absence of a roll call vote, as part of an omnibus adjournment motion that was unanimously adopted by all members present.  Prime Minister Justin Trudeau was not present because he was at home in self-isolation after his wife, Sophie Grégoire Trudeau, tested positive for a covid-19 infection. On the same day, the Senate passed the first, second and third readings of the recorded voiceless legislation, and Governor General Julie Payette signed it shortly thereafter and concluded that Canada would ratify the legislation.    During his 2016 election campaign and presidency, Trump sharply criticized NAFTA (it was often called “perhaps the worst trade deal of all time” while he hailed the USMCA as “a great market for all of us.”  However, the USMCA is very similar to nafta, has adopted many identical provisions and has made only modest changes, mostly cosmetic, and is expected to have only a limited economic impact.  Former U.S. Trade Representative Mickey Kantor, who oversaw the signing of NAFTA during Bill Clinton`s administration, said, “This is really NAFTA of origin.”  On April 24, 2020, U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer formally announced to Congress that the new trade agreement is expected to enter into force on July 1, 2020, and he also informed Canada and Mexico.   On May 30, Robert E, U.S. COMMERCE representative,